Rutgers Asparagus Breeding Program

 

 

Overview
All-male hybrids
Disease resistance
Spear quality
Tissue culture
Health elements
Purple asparagus
Advanced hybrids

 

Asparagus is a good source of vitamins, such as folic acid and vitamin E. In addition, it contains high levels of rutin and protodioscin.

Green asparagus is a rich source of rutin (quercetin-3-rhamosylglucoside), a flavanoid.

 

The levels of rutin in green asparagus shoot normally range from 0.03% to 0.06% on fresh weight basis.

Rutin is a potent antioxidant and a scavenger of free radicals. Rutin has been reported to possess certain beneficial biological activities which include:

Anti-lipoperoxidant

Reduction of oxidative damage

Anti-inflammation

 

Relatively high levels of protodioscin, a steroidal saponin, are found in asparagus crowns and spears.

 

On average, fresh asparagus shoots contain 0.24 (tip portion) to 25 mg (base partion) per 100 g fresh weight of protodioscin. The levels of protodioscin in the crowns are around 25 mg/100g fresh weight.

Protodioscin has been reported to possess the following bioactivities:

Cytotoxicity against a number of human cencer cell lines

Reduction in bone loss

Improving sexual desire and enhancing erection

 

Selective literature on rutin

C La Casa, I Villegas, C Alarcon de la Lastra, V Motilva, and MJ Martin Calero
Evidence for protective and antioxidant properties of rutin, a natural flavone, against ethanol induced gastric lesions.
J Ethnopharmacol, Jul 2000; 71(1-2): 45-53.

LN Grinberg, EA Rachmilewitz, and H Newmark
Protective effects of rutin against hemoglobin oxidation.
Biochem Pharmacol, Aug 1994; 48(4): 643-9.

SJ Duthie and VL Dobson
Dietary flavonoids protect human colonocyte DNA from oxidative attack in vitro.
Eur J Nutr, Feb 1999; 38(1): 28-34.

A Negre-Salvayre, V Reaud, C Hariton, and R Salvayre
Protective effect of alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and rutin against peroxidative stress induced by oxidized lipoproteins on lymphoid cell lines.

LN Grinberg, EA Rachmilewitz, and H Newmark
Protective effects of rutin against hemoglobin oxidation.
Biochem Pharmacol, Aug 1994; 48(4): 643-9.

SD Skaper, M Fabris, V Ferrari, M Dalle Carbonare, and A Leon
Quercetin protects cutaneous tissue-associated cell types including sensory neurons from oxidative stress induced by glutathione depletion: cooperative effects of ascorbic acid.
Free Radic Biol Med, Jan 1997; 22(4): 669-78.

A Schmitt, R Salvayre, J Delchambre, and A Negre-Salvayre
Prevention by alpha-tocopherol and rutin of glutathione and ATP depletion induced by oxidized LDL in cultured endothelial cells
Br. J. Pharmacol., Oct 1995; 116: 1985 - 1990.


SA Aherne and NM O'Brien
Mechanism of protection by the flavonoids, quercetin and rutin, against tert-butylhydroperoxide- and menadione-induced DNA single strand breaks in Caco-2 cells.
Free Radic Biol Med, Sep 2000; 29(6): 507-14


SA Aherne and NM O'Brien
Protection by the flavonoids myricetin, quercetin, and rutin against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in Caco-2 and Hep G2 cells.
Nutr Cancer, Jan 1999; 34(2): 160-6.

RP Webster, MD Gawde, and RK Bhattacharya
Protective effect of rutin, a flavonol glycoside, on the carcinogen-induced DNA damage and repair enzymes in rats.
Cancer Lett, Dec 1996; 109(1-2): 185-91.


EE Deschner, J Ruperto, G Wong, and HL Newmark
Quercetin and rutin as inhibitors of azoxymethanol-induced colonic neoplasia
Carcinogenesis, Jul 1991; 12: 1193 - 1196.

SJ Duthie and VL Dobson
Dietary flavonoids protect human colonocyte DNA from oxidative attack in vitro.
Eur J Nutr, Feb 1999; 38(1): 28-34.

HD Je, CY Shin, SY Park, SH Yim, C Kum, IH Huh, JH Kim, and UD Sohn
Combination of vitamin C and rutin on neuropathy and lung damage of diabetes mellitus rats.
Arch Pharm Res, April 1, 2002; 25(2): 184-90.

Selective literature on protodioscin

Y Shao, O Poobrasert, EJ Kennelly, CK Chin, CT Ho, MT Huang, SA Garrison, and GA Cordell
Steroidal saponins from Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity.
Planta Med, Jun 1997; 63(3): 258-62.


M Dong, XZ Feng, BX Wang, T Ikejima, and LJ Wu
Steroidal saponins from Dioscorea panthaica and their cytotoxic activity.
Pharmazie, Apr 2004; 59(4): 294-6.

K Hu and X Yao
Protodioscin (NSC-698 796): its spectrum of cytotoxicity against sixty human cancer cell lines in an anticancer drug screen panel.
Planta Med, Apr 2002; 68(4): 297-301.


K Gauthaman, AP Ganesan, and RN Prasad
Sexual effects of puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) extract (protodioscin): an evaluation using a rat model.

K Gauthaman, PG Adaikan, and RN Prasad
Aphrodisiac properties of Tribulus Terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats.
Life Sci, Aug 2002; 71(12): 1385-96

J Yin, Y Tezuka, K Kouda, Q Le Tran, T Miyahara, Y Chen, and S Kadota
In vivo antiosteoporotic activity of a fraction of Dioscorea spongiosa and its constituent, 22-O-methylprotodioscin.
Planta Med, March 1, 2004; 70(3): 220-6.

 

 

Overview Δ
All-male Δ
Disease resistance Δ
Spear quality Δ
Tissue culture Δ
Health elements Δ
Purple asparagus Δ
New hybrids Δ

 

For more information contact: chee-kok chin